Terms every technology management professional needs to know.
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaboration between seven telecommunications standards organizations working on 5G mobile broadband standards. Visit 3gpp.org for information on participating organizations, project groups, documentation, and specifications.
Mobile operators are actively deploying 5G across the globe and they will continue to upgrade legacy networks and deploy new 5G infrastructure for several years to come. Most mobile operators publish coverage maps and 5G availability lookup tools for their respective networks. A useful global resource to track 5G deployments in real-time can be found at SpeedTest.net.
9-1-1 has been used in North America since 1968, but it is not a global emergency services number. The ITU (International Telecommunications Union) is a global standards organization that provides guidance to its members. ITU-T E.161.1: “Guidelines to select Emergency Number for public telecommunications networks” recommends either 112 or 9-1-1 or both be implemented. 112 is the standard for EU countries as well as others across the globe. While 112 and 9-1-1 have broad coverage, neither is universal. When travelling to a new or unfamiliar location, learning the emergency service number for your destination is advised.
Access control is a data security practice designed to ensure that users only have access to authorized network resources based on each user’s permissions.
AHJ (Authority Having Jurisdiction)
An AHJ (authority having jurisdiction) is a code enforcement entity. For example, a fire marshal is commonly responsible for enforcing local fire protection codes. Code enforcement and telecommunications intersect when alarm signaling and alarm communicator systems are involved. Public switched telephone network (PSTN) decommissioning has prompted the need for businesses to upgrade and update alarm systems reliant on traditional phone lines and complying with local fire code is imperative.
An applet is an application that performs a singular task. Applets are programs that run within a larger, more comprehensive software application.
Attestation is the act of verifying or proving something to be true or valid.
Average Revenue per User (ARPU)
Average Revenue per User (ARPU) is a widely used metric in the communications industry by vendors and suppliers to quantify the value of each customer in terms of revenue.
Bandwidth & Throughput
Bandwidth and throughput are related, but not synonymous networking terms. Bandwidth is the maximum available data transfer capacity between two locations in a network while throughout is the actual speed of data transfer between two locations in a network.
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a global routing system that enables autonomous systems to exchange reachability information across the Internet.
A botnet is a group of compromised computers running malicious software that are controlled by a cybercriminal.
Breach of Contract
Breach of contract occurs when one party to a contract fails to fulfill its obligations. Minor or major breaches of contract may occur and, in most cases, resolution for specific breach conditions is prescribed within the contract.
Broadband Options GIS Map
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) maintains an interactive geographic information system (GIS) map of broadband options available at each street address in the United States. Details include providers, network technology used, and upload/download speeds available. The FCC provides this reliable resource for investigating available broadband options.
Business Continuity (BC) & Disaster Recovery (DR)
Business Continuity (BC) plans and Disaster Recovery (DR) plans are related, but not identical. Business continuity plans address the restoration of all business operations after a disruptive event. Disaster recovery plans address actions required to restore critical infrastructure after a disruptive event occurs. Disaster recovery plans are commonly treated as a subset of an overall business continuity plan.
California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA)
California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) is designed to give Californians control over the use of personal data. According to the California Office of the Attorney General, CCPA applies to for-profit businesses that do business in California. CCPA does not apply to government or not-for-profit organizations. To learn more visit oag.ca.gov
Caller ID Spoofing
Caller ID spoofing is the practice of changing the call information that is displayed to a called party. Caller ID spoofing is illegal. The Truth in Caller ID Act of 2009 states “It shall be unlawful for any person within the United States, in connection with any telecommunications service or IP-enabled voice service, to cause any caller identification service to knowingly transmit misleading or inaccurate caller identification information with the intent to defraud, cause harm, or wrongfully obtain anything of value…” There are a few exceptions to the Act that address authorized law enforcement and court-ordered actions.
Carrier Administrative Charges (CAC)
Carrier Administrative Charges (CAC) are not taxes. They are cost recovery fees that carriers are allowed to assess to recoup the cost of collecting various other surcharges and fees. Administrative charges date back to the mid-1990s and serve to make carriers whole for costs incurred while collecting mandated surcharges and fees established by the Telecom Act of 1996.
Traditionally, carrier tiers have been used to define network services infrastructure ownership: Tier 1 carriers own network services infrastructure, Tier 2 carriers own part of the network services infrastructure and lease part from Tier 1 carriers, and Tier 3 carriers lease and resell network services infrastructure. The meaning of the tier terms can vary, though. Some use tiers to differentiate network attributes, such as reliability and traffic priority, with Tier 1 being the highest and Tier 3 being the lowest. To avoid confusion, it’s best practice to confirm the scope of meaning in context with each vendor.
A clawback refers to recovering funds that have been disbursed. Depending on the context, clawback clauses can benefit customers or carriers. If the clawback clause addresses a customer’s ability to recoup overcharges that have been paid to a carrier, then it benefits the customer. If the clawback clause addresses a carrier’s ability to recoup credits or bonus discounts applied to a customer’s invoice, then it benefits the carrier.
Cloud Access Security Broker (CASB)
A Cloud Access Security Broker (CASB) is put between cloud service consumers and providers to act as a security policy enforcement point. As cloud-based assets are accessed, a CASB combines and adds enterprise security policies. Visibility, compliance, data security, and threat protection are the foundational aspects of a CASB.
Cloud computing is on demand delivery of computing resources using the internet. The computing resources vary. Platform as a Service (PaaS) refers to computing resources like web services and databases. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) refers to computing resources like servers and virtual machines.
The term cloud native refers to the practice of designing, deploying, and managing applications completely in the cloud.
Configuration Management Database (CMDB)
Configuration Management Database (CMDB) is an ITIL (IT Infrastructure Library) concept that defines a data warehouse of IT assets and services, configuration details, and data relationships. Essentially, CMDB enhances lifecycle management of IT assets and services by improving access to the data and information required to manage the environment.
CPNI (Customer Proprietary Network Information)
CPNI (Customer Proprietary Network Information) is an information privacy provision in the Telecommunications Act of 1996 (47 U.S. Code Section 222). Its purpose is to protect the sale and use of customer information without consent. CPNI applies to telecommunications carriers, interconnected VoIP services providers, and commercial mobile radio services providers. It covers services, configuration details, location, usage volume, and billing information. The use of service address and location information by emergency services providers is excluded from CPNI rules. Customers may opt-out of CPNI according to individual carrier identified methods widely available on their websites. CPNI laws also enable customers to require carriers to disclose CPNI data to any party the customer designates, which may prove useful when working with consultants and third parties that require carrier information.
Customer Experience (CX)
Customer experience (CX) is the collective sentiment a customer forms from all interactions with a business, product, or brand.
Customer Service Record (CSR)
Customer Service Record (CSR) offer service, configuration, and charge detail for local exchange carrier services at a deeper level than most invoices. Common details that are available on CSRs that do not always appear on invoices include service address, line features, line configuration details, circuit mileage, surcharge detail, and tax detail. This information allows a complete validation and reconciliation of the services invoiced.
Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA)
The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) leads the national effort to understand, manage, and reduce risk to our cyber and physical infrastructure for the United States.
The term dark fiber refers to fiber optic cables that are physically installed and available for use but are not currently used by a carrier, operator or private entity. Dark fiber can be leased or purchased by organizations that wish to create a private network between two or more locations.
Data Protection Impact Assessment
A Data Protection Impact Assessment is a GDPR compliance evaluation process designed to expose data protection risks. According to GDPR.eu, Article 35 GDPR states “Where a type of processing in particular using new technologies, and taking into account the nature, scope, context and purposes of the processing, is likely to result in a high risk to the rights and freedoms of natural persons, the controller shall, prior to the processing, carry out an assessment of the impact of the envisaged processing operations on the protection of personal data.”
Disentanglement is the act of separating tightly bound things. In technology management, the term is used to indicate that the separation process is complex and with some degree of risk. Replacing outsourcing vendors or technology infrastructure are scenarios in which the term disentanglement may be used.
Device-as-a-Service (DaaS) is a technology service delivery model that includes hardware, software, service, and support in a single subscription. DaaS subscriptions may be configured to support smartphones, tablets, laptops, desktops, or other endpoint-centric technology.
Distracted driving laws are legislated on a state-by-state basis in the United States. The Governors Highway Safety Association (GHSA) compiles relevant distracted driving laws and resources. Visit ghsa.org for a complete list of state laws and related data.
A demarcation point (DMARC) is the physical location where carrier network services (telephone, cable, fiber, etc.) connect with the customer’s on-premises wiring. Generally, it is the dividing line in determining who is responsible for the installation and maintenance of wiring and equipment, the customer or the carrier.
Do Not Call Registry
The Federal Trade Commission’s Do Not Call Registry (donotcall.gov) applies to consumer landline and wireless numbers. Registering your personal mobile phone number should afford you protection from businesses that abide by registry rules for contacting consumers; however, business-to-business calls are not protected. While registering a personal number, or any number for that fact, on the Do Not Call registry decreases the likelihood of legitimate telemarketing calls, there is no remedy should business-to-business calls be received.
Economic Adjustment Charge
Verizon’s Economic Adjustment Charge is a per line user fee levied to help Verizon Wireless cover administrative, regulatory, and network costs.
Edge computing is a distributed network model characterized by computing resources located at the edge of a network close to the devices collecting data. Traditional networks by contrast rely on centralized computing resources far away from the edge of the network. IoT and AI are examples of technology that rely on edge computing. The increasing availability of high-speed, low latency bandwidth like 5G will accelerate edge computing proliferation.
In cloud computing, the term elasticity refers to the ability of the cloud environment to dynamically scale computing, memory, and storage resources automatically.
E&M signaling is an analog private branch exchange (PBX) trunk technology. E&M refers to earth and magnet (or magneto), electrical current terminology used open or close a circuit. A closed circuit equates to an off-hook trunk and an open circuit is an on-hook circuit.
Employee Reimbursement Laws
Several states and jurisdictions including California, District of Columbia, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Montana, and New Hampshire have laws that require employees to reimburse employees for expenses directly related to business activities. While jurisdictions vary, employers should examine reimbursement practices in light of forced and voluntary work from home conditions resulting from Covid-19 related shelter in place orders.
eSIM stands for – embedded subscriber identity module. It is used in a mobile device to connect the device to the subscriber’s mobile carrier. It replaces a physical SIM card. The benefit of an eSIM to users is the ability to switch carriers without having to replace a physical card in the device.
An Evil Twin is a Wi-Fi hotspot that mimics a free public Wi-Fi hotspot and is used by bad actors to capture sensitive data transmitted from a laptop, tablet or mobile phone that connects to it.
According to NIST, federation is “a process that allows for the conveyance of identity and authentication information across a set of networked systems.”
Firewall as a Service (FWaaS)
A Firewall as a Service (FWaaS) is a cloud-based solution that works much like a hardware firewall by filtering network traffic to protect an organization from security risks, but has several distinct advantages being based in the cloud. For example, a FWaaS is able to immediately scale to fit an expanding network.
Firm Order Commitment (FOC)
A Firm Order Commitment (FOC) date is a committed installation date from a carrier or service provider.
FirstNet is a wireless communications platform built by AT&T for first responders and public safety agencies in the United States. While preferred pricing is available to verified eligible subscribers, the primary purpose of FirstNet is ensuring first responders have priority access to reliable and secure wireless networks that allow them to fulfill their public safety obligations.
GPS Tracking Laws
Employers can track company assets such as vehicles, equipment, computers, smartphones, and tablets using GPS without employee consent in the United States. Tracking GPS of personal smartphones is not allowed without explicit employee consent, though. Also, state, federal and international laws vary on the topic of surveillance of employees outside of work hours or without consent. Laws will continue to evolve as digital footprints expand and data privacy expectations change. Best practices for businesses on this topic are to be transparent with employees, obtain consent as required, and monitor changing laws and regulations closely.
A hold harmless clause protects one party from holding the other party liable for damages. It prevents the protected party from being sued for damages. Hold harmless clauses are common in technology contracts and should be evaluated for situational relevance in each instance.
IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity)
IMEI is an acronym for International Mobile Equipment Identity. It is a 15-digit number that uniquely identifies a mobile device. It’s like a VIN number on a vehicle. IMEI identifies device manufacturer and model along with operating system and hardware configuration details. Visit IMEI.info for free basic lookups and additional information.
Indemnification is a contractual obligation whereby one party is required to compensate the other party for loss or harm caused by breach of contract. Indemnity may apply to one party (one-way indemnification) or both parties (two-way indemnification).
Industry 4.0, or the Fourth Industrial Revolution, is focused on automating the industry using smart technology. 5G, edge computing, AI/AR, IoT, and machine-to-machine are examples of technology that support the goal of automating manufacturing and industrial practices. Industry 4.0 is the successor to the digital revolution that was enabled by computing.
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is a large, open, international community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet.
The acronym IoT stands for internet of things, which is an infinite collection of connected things, such as wearables, tracking sensors, and consumer devices.
Industrial internet of things (IIoT) is a sub-class of IoT devices used specifically in industrial applications that support automation of manufacturing and industrial practices. IIoT is a leading technology supporting the Fourth Industrial Revolution or Industry 4.0.
ISO/IEC 27032:2012 is an international standard that addresses information security, network security, internet security, and critical information infrastructure protection. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an independent global membership organization comprised of 167 national standards bodies that collaborate and develop international standards.
ISV (Independent Software Vendor)
An independent software vendor (ISV) is a company that creates and sells software for use on various hardware platforms. This category of vendor is not part of a hardware manufacturer, thus making them independent.
IT Service Management (ITSM) & IT Asset Management (ITAM)
IT Service Management (ITSM) and IT Asset Management (ITAM) business practices are not synonyms, but they are related. ITSM is a business practice focused on design and delivery of technology to the business, while ITAM is a business practice focused on managing the financial, contractual, and inventory aspects of the technology itself. ITSM is business-facing, while ITAM is internal IT management facing.
Jitter & Packet Loss
Jitter and packet loss are terms used to define and measure the integrity of data transmission across a packet-switched network. Jitter measures the variance in delivery time between data packets. Jitter is measured in milliseconds (ms); 1 second equals 1,000 ms. Inconsistent packet delivery degrades transmission quality. In the case of voice and video transmission, humans begin to perceive jitter with a delay of 10 ms, which manifests as choppy voice or video. Packet loss is the failure of a network to deliver all packets transmitted, which degrades overall data quality as well.
Keylogger software is surveillance software that records computer keystrokes. Keyloggers can be used for legitimate purposes such as activity and productivity monitoring or for nefarious purposes such as stealing usernames, passwords, and other personal information.
Lifetime Value (LTV)
Lifetime Value (LTV) is a metric used by vendors to estimate the average revenue that will be earned per customer over the span of a commercial relationship. This metric may be applied to the relationship as a whole or just to certain products and services within the scope of the relationship.
LOA (Letters of Authorization or Letters of Agency)
Letters of Authorization (LOA) and Letters of Agency (LOA) allow third parties to access carrier information and make service inquires on behalf of a customer. They may also allow third parties to place orders, make account changes or perform other designated actions on the customer’s behalf. LOAs can be tricky, and vendors have different requirements for submitting LOAs. Check with your specific vendor on their LOA filing requirements or seek advice from your agent.
Minimum Viable Product (MVP)
Minimum Viable Product (MVP) is a development term that refers to a new product, typically within a start-up company. The term means that a product is developed to a functional stage to prove its viability. MVP is the base stage of a product that will be evolved and matured against customer and market feedback.
Mobile Device Management (MDM) & Unified Endpoint Management (UEM)
MDM and UEM are related terms. Mobile Device Management (MDM) refers to the practice and suite of technology solutions that enable an enterprise to manage its handheld cellular-enabled devices. Unified Endpoint Management (UEM) refers to the practice and suite of technology solutions that enable enterprises to manage all network endpoints (e.g., laptops, PCs, printers, IoT devices, mobile devices, connected handhelds, etc.). MDM is a subset of UEM.
Mobile Virtual Network Operator (MVNO)
A Mobile Virtual Network Operator (MVNO) is a mobile carrier that buys network services from other mobile carriers and resells them using their own brand. They purchase in bulk and resell at a reduced rate. MVNOs are able to present a single offering to customers that is comprised of multiple mobile carriers’ services. There are several consumer-focused MVNOs and some business-focused MVNOs in operation today.
MPOE is an acronym for minimum point of entry. It denotes the physical location where a telecom provider’s network facilities (wiring or fiber) enter a customer’s premise. The MPOE is typically also the demarcation point (DMARC) for network responsibility. Customers are responsible for network facilities and equipment inside of the MPOE/DMARC, while telecom providers are responsible for the facilities and equipment outside of the MPOE/DMARC.
Multifactor authentication (MFA)
Multifactor authentication (MFA) is a security measure that requires users to present multiple independent credentials to be granted login access to a system or website. Passwords, passphrases, biometric verification, authenticator token devices, and authenticator apps on smartphones are examples of various credentials that may be part of MFA.
Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT)
Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) is low power, wide area network technology that uses the LTE spectrum to connect IoT devices. The main application for NB IoT technology is to connect devices that require small amounts of data over long periods of time. NB-IoT is optimized for low power consumption, which extends battery life to 10 years or more.
National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA)
The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) is an agency within the Department of Commerce. According to its website, NTIA “is principally responsible for advising the President on telecommunications and information policy issues. NTIA’s programs and policymaking focus largely on expanding broadband Internet access and adoption in America, expanding the use of spectrum by all users, and ensuring that the Internet remains an engine for continued innovation and economic growth.”
Near-field communication (NFC)
Near-field communication (NFC) allows two electronic devices to communicate using a 13.56 MHz unlicensed radio frequency. Security cards, proximity keys, and payment cards are common applications for NFC, which communicates at a standard distance of 4cm or less with a maximum operating distance of 10cm.
Network Function Virtualization (NFV)
Network Function Virtualization (NFV) allows services to be virtualized on a network using existing physical devices. SDN and NFV are used in tandem by carriers and network providers to optimize network CAPEX investments and OPEX costs and to accelerate service deployment.
Network Redundancy & Network Diversity
Network redundancy and network diversity are not synonymous networking terms. Network Redundancy means multiple communications paths exist between systems. Network Diversity means that multiple communications paths using separate physical paths are present between systems. The distinction is critical in network design as redundancy does not guarantee path diversity. Redundant circuits using the same physical path present a single point of network failure in events such as a backhoe breaching an underground conduit.
NG9-1-1 is the next-generation standard supporting digital IP-based 9-1-1 services. Visit nena.org for additional information on NG9-1-1.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology has published NIST Special Publication 800-88, Guidelines for Media Sanitization, to address mobile device wipes. NIST defines media sanitization as ‘a process that renders access to target data on the media infeasible for a given level of effort’ and the publication covers mobile devices as well as other hard copy and network device sanitization. The publication can be found at nist.gov.
North American Numbering Plan (NANP)
The North American Numbering Plan (NANP) is an integrated telephone numbering plan serving 20 North American countries that share its resources. These countries include the United States and its territories, Canada, Bermuda, Anguilla, Antigua & Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, Sint Maarten, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, and Turks & Caicos. The North American Numbering Plan Administrator (NANPA) is a neutral, non-regulatory entity that administers the numbering plan.
Number Portability allows mobile users to port a number between carriers. It is available in many countries, but it is not ubiquitous. Check with the telecommunications regulatory body for each country in question to learn the details of availability.
Over-the-Top (OTT) refers to a service that is delivered over an existing transport infrastructure. The services and connectivity can be provided independently. Streaming media is the most common OTT service.
Payment Terms Negotiations
Payment terms are negotiable. When negotiating terms and conditions for carriers and other vendor contracts, consider everything eligible for negotiation; there are no hard and fast rules prohibiting negotiation of any term or condition. Not all carriers will concede to requested payment terms, but equitable terms may be achieved through negotiation.
Permanent Internet Tax Freedom Act (PIFTA)
The Permanent Internet Tax Freedom Act (PIFTA) prohibits states and localities from levying taxes on internet access. While the title of the legislation indicates permanency, there is no guarantee that internet access will remain tax-free in the future.
A personal cloud is a consumer-based term that refers to a collection of personal digital content accessible from a variety of devices and a variety of locations over a public internet connection.
Personal Information Protection Law (PIPL)
China’s Personal Information Protection Law (PIPL) became effective on November 1, 2021. It applies to all entities that process the personal information of Chinese citizens living inside and outside of China. When personal information processing occurs outside of China to provide products or services, or to analyze the behavior of individuals in China, compliance with PIPL requires the processor to have a representative or dedicated office in China to support personal information protection.
Pallone-Thune TRACED Act
The Pallone-Thune TRACED Act (Telephone Robocall Abuse Criminal Enforcement and Deterrence Act) gives the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) additional tools to fight unlawful robocalls. The FCC can now fine violators of the Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA) without the requirement to first issue a warning citation and the FCC can pursue violations for up to four years as opposed to the one-year statute of limitation previously established. Additionally, the FCC can now require all telephone providers to adopt call authentication technologies over the next 18 months without issuing line item charges for call authentication to customers.
PIPEDA (Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act)
PIPEDA, the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, is a Canadian law that governs the collection of personal information and individual consent requirements for the use and disclosure of the information.
POTS-in-a-Box is a term for a device that replaces traditional landline network services or plain old telephone service (POTS) by converting analog inputs to digital outputs transmitted across a cellular network. Demand for these devices is on the rise as wireline network carriers decommission PSTN services in favor of IP network technology. The lifespan of traditional phone lines, modem lines, FAX lines, and alarm lines that still require an analog network connection can be extended using a POTS-in-a-Box device.
Property Tax Allotment
Property Tax Allotment is a surcharge that carriers assess to recover property taxes paid. Legislation allows carriers to recoup the amount of property taxes they pay by assessing this surcharge to its customers.
Telephone service providers are aggressively investing in IP infrastructure to replace the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Most providers would prefer to turn off traditional landlines sooner rather than later. Desire aside, PSTN’s replacement must be geographically available before it can be fully sunset. There have been various complete sunset date predictions that range from 2024 to 2030; however, this does not mean it will be a slow transition for all. Slate this topic for business review meetings with each of your PSTN providers and enquire about specific transition plans, dates, and notification protocols to gain more insight on the impact of PSTN retirement for your organization.
PUK (Personal Unlock Key)
A PUK code is a Personal Unlock Key on mobile devices that secures SIM card data. In cases where a SIM card PIN number has been entered incorrectly multiple times, the PUK code is needed to unlock the SIM. This code can be obtained from your carrier.
Radio Access Network (RAN)
A radio access network (RAN) is a wireless network comprised of base stations and antennas that connect user devices to a communications network.
Ransomware-as-a-Service (RaaS) is, unfortunately, exactly what its name implies. It is a malware subscription service that allows bad actors to steal data and extort the owners of the data. RaaS expands the capability of ransomware attacks to anyone inclined to perpetrate the crime via subscription to the service.
Real-Time Location Systems (RLTS)
Real-time location systems (RLTS) are used to accurately identify the location of physical assets or persons. Transponders affixed or embedded in a tracked item allow location software and receivers to pinpoint the location of the item. Global positioning system (GPS) tags, radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, and microchips are examples of transponders.
Real-Time Text (RTT)
Real-Time Text (RTT) is an instant communications method that allows the recipient to read a message as it is being typed. The goal behind RTT is to promote conversational communications as opposed to one-way communications with traditional text messages that are not real-time. Additionally, RTT is being developed as a potential replacement for TTY transmissions for the deaf.
The term rental on a European telecom invoice means the same thing as the term recurring charge on U.S. telecom invoices. Note that often the recurring charge from U.S. telecom vendors is assessed and paid monthly, while telecom vendors across the global may assess rentals on a quarterly basis or other non-monthly period.
The word remuneration means to pay back or compensate. The word may appear in contract terms associated with performance guarantees, such as service level agreements, which are not being met. Remuneration in this case refers to making a party financially whole as a result of another party not meeting commitments.
Resilience in networking refers to the ability of a system, network, or service to quickly recover from an outage or interruption.
Rich Communications Services (RCS)
Rich Communications Services (RCS) is a GSM Association standard for advanced messaging that is aiming to replace SMS. The goal of RCS is to provide traditional messaging and chat services, as well as advanced services including audio messaging, video calling, content sharing, presence services, and geolocation information exchange.
Rip & Replace
Rip & Replace is slang term used to indicate that network hardware is being removed and completely replaced with new hardware.
Secure Access Service Edge (SASE)
Secure Access Service Edge (SASE) is a mash-up of SD-WAN (software-defined wide area network) and security in a single cloud-delivered service. This emerging cloud service is poised to simplify network architecture and scalability.
Secure web gateway (SWG)
A Secure web gateway (SWG) can be software or a hardware appliance that controls traffic between a public network and an internal network. SWGs are designed to prohibit unsecure internet traffic from entering an internal network thus reducing cybersecurity risk associated with malware, viruses, malicious website, etc.
Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML)
Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) is a technical standard used by identity management providers to authenticate a user in a system.
SLO (Service Level Objective)
SLO is an acronym for service level objective. It is similar to a service level agreement (SLA) but contains no performance guarantees or remedies should the performance objective not be met. SLOs are useful in a vendor customer relationship when the vendor desires to illustrate a performance target related to the solution or scope of work delivered, but the performance target is not contractually tied to a performance guarantee.
Scammers are notorious for attempting to collect personal information, usernames, and passwords via phone calls and emails. This illicit practice is called phishing. Smishing is a scam that uses SMS and other short form messaging services to phish for personal information. Smishing messages frequently include a URL and an urgent message to compel the recipient to click on a link to confirm confidential information, such as bank login credentials. To avoid being scammed by a smishing attack, delete suspicious messages and only click links sent from trusted parties.
In the context of information security, social engineering is psychological manipulation designed to coerce people into sharing confidential information. Sometimes referred to as human hacking, social engineering uses deception techniques, such as impersonating a known person, to build trust and put the subject of the attack at ease so they are more likely to share confidential information.
Software Defined Networks (SDN)
Software Defined Networks (SDN) separate network control from network equipment. It’s an architecture that allows networks to be flexible and improves the economics of network management.
Technology Hotelling is the practice of delivering communications services to a shared or unassigned workspace. Organizations that have employees that travel between offices or work remotely part of the time and in the office part of the time provide voice and data connectivity in workspaces that allows users to access the voice and data network. Unified communications and presence technology has greatly eased the administration of shared workspace, as users can connect to the network virtually anywhere, and voice and messaging callers can reach them without the need to know their physical location.
Telehealth & Connected Care
Telehealth has been evolving in the US for several years. Broadly, telehealth offers patient-provider care remotely and can include video chat visits for routine and non-emergency diagnosis and care. A specific focus of telehealth is providing long-term care to users that do not have access to high-speed networks and/or suitable devices for telehealth visits. In March 2020, the FCC approved a pilot program named Connected Care that is designed to support telehealth for low-income Americans and veterans.
Unwanted text messages can be more than frustrating. They can be used for social hacking and for distributing malware, trojans, and ransomware. Wireless carriers, regulatory agencies, and advocacy groups in the United States are actively working to reduce the threats and lessen the impact of spam text messages. Best practice to support the cause is to report and block spam messages using native messaging apps on your device or to copy the message and forward it to 7726 (SPAM). While these actions may not eliminate all spam messages, reporting spam enables various industry parties to collect critical data and take action to reduce ongoing threats.
Code of Federal Regulations Title 47, Section 64.2401 Truth-in-Billing Requirements establishes enforceable rules for telecommunications bills. It addresses bill organization, descriptions of billed charges, “deniable” and “non-deniable” charges, clear and conspicuous disclosure of inquiry contacts, definition of clear and conspicuous, blocking of third-party changes, and prohibition against unauthorized charges.
Unified Threat Management (UTM)
According to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Special Publication 800-41, Revision 1, “a typical unified threat management (UTM) system has a firewall, malware detection and eradication, sensing and blocking of suspicious network probes, and so on.”
Value Added Tax (VAT)
A Value Added Tax (VAT) is a tax assessed against the value added to goods and services at each stage of the supply chain, which may include developing, sourcing, manufacturing, assembling, fulfilling, distributing, selling, etc.
Virtual Customer Premises Equipment (vCPE)
Virtual Customer Premises Equipment (vCPE) is software that delivers network functions traditionally delivered by hardware. It’s used in SD-WAN networks to virtualize routing, VPN, and firewall functions.
Virtual Machine (VM)
A virtual machine (VM) is cloud-based computing environment that behaves the same as a physical computer.
Wi-Fi Alliance is a non-profit organization that owns the Wi-Fi® trademark and “drives global Wi-Fi adoption and evolution through thought leadership, spectrum advocacy, and industry-wide collaboration. Our work includes the development of innovative technologies, requirements, and test programs that help ensure Wi-Fi provides users the interoperability, security, and reliability they have come to expect.”
Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA)
Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA) are governed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) within the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau. FEMA administers the Integrated Public Alert and Warning System (IPAWS), which is a public safety system connected with participating wireless carriers. Organizations such as county, city, state and federal public safety agencies can register to be an alerting authority in IPAWS, and this allows them to broadcast WEA messages through participating wireless carriers to user devices supporting WEA.
A works council in Germany is an employee elected body that represents the interests of employees in a business. A unique right of a works council regarding social matters, such as company code of conduct rules and the introduction and application of technology, is called comprehensive codetermination. This means that an employer cannot implement certain social measures without previous agreement from the works council. Technology policy is considered a social matter, so the works council must agree to the provisions of the policy before it is implemented. Failure to secure an agreement can result in costly arbitration for the employer and workers frequently have an advantage over employers in arbitration cases.
Zero Trust is a security model that calls for verification of everything across a network. Essentially, the concept espouses the belief that no one should be trusted; rather, users should be verified regardless of where the user is located on the network (i.e., inside or outside of the network firewall).
Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA)
Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA) creates an access boundary around applications, hiding them from discovery. A trust broker only allows specifically named participants the ability to access the applications, keeping them out of public view and safer from potential attack.
A zombie is a computer connected to a network that has been hacked with the intent of using the compromised computer to conduct malicious tasks without the computer owner’s knowledge.